Section 2: Ultrafast Measurement Methods

The oscillation frequency of light being what it is, one may imagine that it is very hard to measure pulses that are only a few femtoseconds long. It turns out, you are exactly correct, and long and hard thought was put into the best methods for measurement, and how to represent those measurements. It is best if you can get into a lab and use some of the equipment described in the following sections, but for the majority of those who likely cannot, I will be also including videos and images of some of this equipment in my own lab!

Table of Contents:

  1. Electric Field Measurements
  2. Intensity Measurements
  3. Spectrograms
  4. Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating
  5. Measurements Based on Frequency Filtering
  6. Self-Referencing Interferometry
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